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THE 



mxvd tit % Jwtg of §xto, 



AND OF 



THE INSTITUTIONS W UNION. 



110th Session.] 



FRIDAY, AUGUST 5, 1864. 



[No. 611. Vol. XII. 



+. 

Cantor Lectures. 

The publication of Dr. Grace Calvert's course 
will be resumed in an early number. 



NATIONAL GALLERY AND ROYAL ACADEMY. 

The following plan for combining the National Gallery 
and Royal Academy on the site of the present National 
Gallery, has been suggested by Mr. C. Bruce Allen, 
architect: — 

Unity of purpose and definiteness of aim constitute 
strength, and the reverse weakness and impossibility of 
action, say the masters of military art, and events perpe 



REFERENCES TO THE 
BLOCK PLAN. 

A. Present National Gal- 
lery and Roval Academy, 
one-half being occupied 
by the National Gallery 
and Pictures, and the 
other half by the Royal 
Academy and its Schools 
and Library. 

B. St. George's Barracks— 
the upper story proposed 
to be devoted to the pur- 
poses of the Royal Aca- 
demy, as a temporary 
accommodation for its an- 
nual Exhibition, and the 
lower story for its Schools, 
Library, Casts,and Offices. 

C. St. Martin's Workhouse 
and Archbishop Tenni- 
eon's School, proposed to 
he used temporarily for " uaLL 
the National Collection of f AU- w*' 
Water Colours and En- 
gravings. 

D. Chapel and Baths and 
Wash-houses. 



It is suggested that, in the first place, the whole of the 
present National Gallery, now partly occupied by the 
Royal Academy, should be used, without any alteration 
or expense whatever, for the purposes of the national col- 
lection of pictures, and that the Royal Academy should 
then occupy (as soon as barrack accommodation can be 
provided elsewhere) the whole of the plot of buildings 
marked B on the plan. No expense beyond the mere 
fitting the rooms to their temporary purpose is contem- 
plated, as the upper rooms of the barrack buildings would 
form long corridors, lighted from the roof, suitable for 



tually prove the truth of it, if not in warfare at least in 
fine-art matters and movements, for at no time in Art 
history have there been such efforts made and so much 
thought given to Art and its progress as now, but unhap- 
pily, from want of accord and aim, without practical 
result. It is for the purpose of helping, as far as may be, 
this desired end — a definite purpose — that this suggested 
plan of combining the two great central art establishments 
of England is suggested ; the one the national collection 
of pictures, and the other the guiding schools and modern 
effects of the study of them. 

In spite of all that has been said of it, there certainly 
does not exist in London, with the exception of Primrose- 
hill, so fine a site for a good building as that now occupied 
by the present National Gallery ; and most certainly there 
is not in Europe a worse building, or one more unworthy 
of its purposes and the country. The annexed plan, it 
is hoped, will at least be found to indicate something 
better : — 



E. Military Store. 

F. Leicester-square. North 
Front of New National 
Gallery. 

C. St. Martin's Church. 

H. Royal College of PhvJ 
sicians. 

X. Circular Domed Cen- 
tral Hall, proposed to be 
built first for the purposes 
of the Royal Academy 
Exhibition, on the site of 
the present Barrack-yard, 
unoccupied except by 
small buildings, B B B, 
and at the expense of the 
Royal Academy. 

ZZZZ. Buildings form- 
ing a cross from the 
Central Hall, to be built 
by aud for the purposes 
of the Royal Academy. 

Y V Y. Future National 
Gallery, forming a square, 
size of the Great Court of 
the Louvre. 



the exhibition of pictures and sculpture, the public 
entrance being through the National Gallery itself, thus 
giving the public, as suggested by Lord Palmerston, an 
opportunity of comparing the doings and efforts of the 
past with the present. As the needs of the Academy in- 
creased, it is suggested that the chapel and baths and 
wash-houses, marked D D on the plan, should be occu- 
pied by it for its schools and library, and collection of 
architectural and other casts, so as to leave further space 
for its annual exhibition ; the different buildings being, 
of course, temporarily connected together. It is thought 




610 



JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS, August 5, 1864. 



that by this plan so large a space would be available that 
all objections to a more liberal action on the part of the 
Academy would cease, and that reform would become a 
reality, so that the more humble and less known artists 
would have opportunities of exhibiting their works, now 
impossible from the simple want of space to put them in. 
It is obvious, too, that the schools of the Academy, on 
which nearly its whole power over Art in the future surely 
rests, might be increased to almost any extent, and that 
its generous plan for giving free instruction and help 
where it is most of all needed, might be made almost in- 
finitely more effective than it is, in the presence, too, of a 
fine collection of antique art. 

But the point in the plan to which attention is more 
especially desired is that of the possibility, on the part of 
the Academy, of erecting for itself a building or buildings 
on a scale of magnificence worthy of it and of its reputation 
in art. It will be observed that the circular room, marked 
X on the plan, stands in the present barrack-yard, occu- 
pying only the space of two or three smalf buildings, 
now used, it is believed, as guard-houses, and might be 
commenced by the Academy without even for years dis- 
turbing any of the existing or temporary arrangements. 
In the plan the buildings D D are shown rather too near 
the circular building, as there is a clear space of the 
narrow street (Orange-street) between the two buildings 
Xand D.* So that this first building by the Royal 
Academy itself, and out of its own funds, would be com- 
menced without creating even temporary inconvenience, 
either to itself or to any arrangements the National 
Gallery might require. A temporary communication 
would, of course, be needed between it and the building 
13. Nothing need here be said as to the height or scale 
of cost and architectural skill of such a structure, as that 
must of course depend on the feelings of the inner 
Council of the Royal Academy, as to its own dignity and 
position in art, of which this central building might be 
supposed to be representative and emblematical. 

The whole of the present National Gallery, being, as 
already suggested, devoted to the purposes of the national 
collection of pictures by the removal of the Royal 
Academy to the barrack buildings, would doubtless for 
a time answer all the purposes of housing all its present 
collection of pictures, at least, both ancient and modern ; 
but it is suggested that if prints, photographs, and draw- 
ings should ever be contemplated as* a necesary part of a 
future national display of art, the buildiDg marked C on the 
plan, i.e., the workhouse buildings and the schools of 
Archbishop Tennison, should be next acquired and tem- 
porarily used for their exhibition, but without any further 
expense than will make them available for such a purpose, 
and with temporary communications between them and 
the present gallery. This plan might for many years 
answer all requirements, and would have the very im- 
portant advantage of affording time for the thoughtful 
development of a structure in the future, worthy in de- 
sign, style, and workmanship of its purpose and its place. 

The whole of the future National Gallery of the Fine 
Arts is represented on the plan by the firm outline and 
the letters Y Y Y arid A, now occupied by the present 
structure, and forms a square between Trafalgar-square 
and Leicester-square, now altogether occupied by very 
inferior houses and property. It fills exactly the space 
occupied in Paris by the grand court of the Louvre, and 
would, for the purposes of art, form the most magnificent 
square in Europe if at all worthily handled. It is here, 
too, that this plan would seem to offer some advantages 
to others that have been at sundry times proposed, 
for, as will be seen, the angle at E, now occupied by 
a military- store establishment, might be the point of 
commencement of the future Gallery on a great scale, 
and the whole of the west-side portion, Dorset street, 
erected in portions, and from time to time, as need and 

* A reference to the large scale Ordnance Map will show 
this. 



funds required and allowed ; communication being made 
between the present building and the newly-built portions. 
Thus it will be seen that the present National Gallery 
would not for very many j^ears need to be touched, and 
would answer all useful purposes, while the nation and 
the House of Commons would have the satisfaction — no 
slight one — of feeling that something was at last being 
done to remedy existing defects and make up for so much 
and such long delay; the House of Commons having 
justly determined to keep the national pictures where 
they are. Not to lengthen at present this short sketch, 
it may be mentioned that the site of Trafalgar- square is 
so good from the simple fact of the ground rising from 
Chaiing-cross to the Gallery building, thus placing the 
building at the greatest possible advantage, inasmuch as 
the spectator looks up at it and approaches up to it ; 
indeed, as the Parthenon at Athens was approached. 
This affords opportunity for flights of steps, as shown on 
the plan, being constructed on a scale worthy of the 
building and the site, and would certainly add not a little 
to its value as an art work. 

As it is the fashion now-a-days to suggest several ways 
of doing a thing for which in reality there is but one 
right way, it may be added that the length A would be 
a complete building, and A Z another, and A Z Z another, 
and so on. And, should the ingenious reader think 
proper to try it, he will find that no less than nineteen 
ways of forming — according to modern notions of com- 
pleteness — perfect buildings may be made out. 

The future additions by the Royal Academy would be 
by means of the arms of the cross, ZZZZ, so as to 
communicate with the domed hall and the corridors of 
the gallery ; the cost to the Academy and the Govern- 
ment being regulated strictly by future requirements and 
means and public demands. 

In submitting this rough and very hasty sketch to the 
consideration of those who may feel interested in it, both 
in the Society of Arts and out of it, the author of it would 
express his own opinion in favour of a concentration of all 
original art objects, both pictures and the results of the 
labours of the art- workman, that is, of all that is left to 
us of the past, in one building, or in buildings commu- 
nicating with each other. He would, therefore, in this 
plan, suggest to the members of the Society of Arts 
whether it would not be worthy of an effort to try and 
secure for it, as an institution taking cognizance of the 
artist workman, a portion of any such future structure ; 
for should the Society take up in earnest, and as a part of 
its art action, the cause of the artist workman, very greatly 
additional space to what it now has would be needed. 
The importance of this action cannot be overstated. 



MEMORIAL TABLETS ON LONDON HOUSES. 

The Builder makes the following suggestions on this 
subject : — 

The Church of St. Mary Overy, or St. Saviour's 
Southwark, might carry, at little cost, words to this 
effect : — 

" In this Church, 

and 

Beneath nameless stones, 

lie the Remains 

of 

John Fletcbeb, 

Poet, 

(Beaumont's associate) ; 

and of 

Pjiilip Massinger, 

Poet, 

Author of ' A New Way to Pay Oil Debts.' 

Fletcher died in 1625, of the Plague, 

and 

Massinger in 1638-9." 



JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS, August 5, 1864. 



611 



On an outer wall of the same church we should like to 
read :— 

" In this Church of 

St. Saviour, Southwark, 

was buried, 

31st Dec., 1607, 

' With an afternoon's knell of the great bell,' 

Edmund &hakspeare, 

Player, 

Younger brother of 

William Shakspeare. 

(England's myriad-minded Poet 

was then a shareholder and actor 

in 

The Globe Theatre, 

in this parish)." 

This, on the little Church of St. Peter, in the Tower, 
would serve a good purpose : — 

"Sir John Eliot, 

of 

Cornwall, 

the fellow-labourer with 

John Hampden and John Pym 

in defence of 

Liberty, 

Died a Prisoner in this Garrison, 

in 1632, aged 42, 

and 

was buried, by command of 

King Charles I., 

,. in this Chapel of 

St. Peter ad Vincula. 

The stone which covers his body is 

uninscribed.' 1 

Shaftesbury House, in Aldersgate, should be made t 
carry :— 

" In this House 

(Inigo Jones, architect) 

Lived and Caballed 

Anthony Ashley Cooper, 

Earl of Shaftesbury 

and 

Lord High Chancellor of England, 

In the reign of 

King Charles the Second." 

A church near to the Guildhall would " stay " many a 

" passenger " to read words *« akin to these " : — 

" In this Church of 

St. Lawrence Jewry 

(Sir Christopher Wren, architect), 

Gilbert Burnet, Bishop of Salisbury, 

Preached in 1694 

The Funeral Sermon of 

John Tillotson, 

Archbishop of Canterbury. 



In early life the great Tillotson 
Was Tuesday Evening Lecturer in this Church." 

This would arrest and deserve the attention of all who 

are wending " Eastward ho ! " or «* Westward ho ! " — 

" In the Font of this Church 

of 

St. Michael'b, Cornhill, 

Thomas Gray, 

Author of 

4 An Eiegy written in a Country Churchyard/ 

Was Baptized in 

The Year 1716." 

This, on No. 17, Gough-square, Fleet-street, would 
bring a debt of national gratitude to complete remem- 
brance : — 



" In a Garret 

In this Square 

Samuel Johnson 

Compiled 

His famous Dictionary 

of 

The English Language." 

This, in Silver- street, Golden-square, would please more 
artists than Mr. Clarkson Stanfield or Mr. David 
Eoberts : — 

" At Mr. Viggans' in this street, 

Lived, 

In the year 1752, 

Antonio Canaletti 

The well-known Painter of " Views of Venice." 

The Poet Laureate, we are sure, would not be displeased 
at seeing a stone to this purport in Piccadilly :— 

" In this Church of 

St. James's, Westminster, 

Lies buried, 

Mark Akenside, 

Author of the ' Pleasures of Imagination.' 

Born 1721. Died 1770." 

Mr. Macready, when in London, and in Great Marl- 
borough- street, would bow with reverence to the house 
connected with the name of Mrs. Siddons : — 

" Sarah Siddons, 
In the height of her Fame 

as 

England's greatest Actress, 

Lived in this House." 

Baron Marochetti, again, would be pleased to be re- 
minded of a great sculptor : — 

"In this House, 

No. 80, Lower Belgrave-place, 

Sir Francis Chantrey, 

Sculptor, 

Died, 

In the year 1841. 

All liis finest works 

Were executed 

Here." 

Even an ancient Royal Academician would not grumble 
at seeing, on No. 30, Allsop-terrace, New-road, an inscrip- 
tion to John Martin : — 

"In this House, 

John Martin, 

The painter and engraver of ' Belshazzar's Feast,' 

And other noble works, 

Lived for five-and-twenty years. 

The gallery in which he worked 

(At the rear of the house) 

Is still to be seen. 

He died in 1854, 

In the Isle of Man." 

The late Bight Hon. John Wilson Croker, were he 
alive, and in 8avile-row, would have given a nod of ap- 
probation at reading, — 

" In this room 

(Of set No. 1 E in the Albany) 

Thomas Babington Macaulay 

Baron Macaulay, 

Wrote the earlier half 

of his 
4 History of England ;' 
And in 
Set No. 2 A, 
Lord Byron 
Wrote his poem of ' Lara.' " 
We cannot conclude without renewing a hope and re- 
peating a belief that something will be done-— and poon 



612 



JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OP ARTS, August 5, 1864. 



too— in a matter that will be honourable to those who 
erect, and pleasant and suggestive to those who read. 

We have pleasure in drawing attention to the following 
letter : — 

"Sib, — The admirable suggestion contained in your 
paper, of marking, in a permanent manner, the residences 
of great men (why not of women, too?) in London, can- 
not, I think, fail of being responded to. 

" In order to carry this suggestion into a practical use, 
it is evident that money must be forthcoming ; and, as a 
beginning, I am authorised by a kind and liberal friend 
to inform you that he is ready to subscribe twenty pounds 
towards this good work; and, should it be responded to, 
as I can have no doubt but that it will be, the money will 
be paid on an application from yourself made to,— Yours, 
&c. Edward Jesse." 



EXAMINATION PAPERS, 1864. 

The following are the Examination Papers set in the 
various subjects at the Society's Final Examinations, held 
in April last : — 

( Continued from page 604. ) 

PRACTICAL MECHANICS. 

THBEE HOURS ALLOWED. 

1. Distinguish between "spur" and "bevil" wheels; 
what is the pitch circle of a toothed wheel? How could 
you conveniently connect two axes by a train of wheels 
when you wished one axis to revolve 720 times as fast as 
the other ? 

2. Define a " screw surface " and the " pitch " of a 
screw. Describe the screw-cutting lathe, and explain the 
method of using a set of change-wheels. 

3. When a beam is moved lengthways upon rollers, 
why is the travel of the beam twice as great as that of the 
rollers ? 

4. Explain the arrangement of three pulleys and three 
bevil wheels for producing a reversing motion in a planing 
machine : describe also some contrivance for obtaining a 
reversing motion with a quick return. 

5. When two unequal cranks, moveable upon centres, 
are connected by a link, compare their angular velocities 
in any given position : what are the conditions under 
which a continuous motion of one crank would impart a 
reciprocating motion to the other 

6. Select and explain some examples which illustrate 
the use of cams in machinery. 

7. Enumerate the principal parts of a double-acting 
condensing steam-engine, and point out very briefly the 
uses which they severally fulfil. 

8. Analyse the arrangement and method of construc- 
tion of marine engines of the following classes : — (1) 
oscillating engines, (2) horizontal trunk engines. 

9. Explain the eccentric for working the slide-valve of 
a steam-engine : draw the locomotive D slide-valve, and 
the ports for the passage of the steam, giving at the same 
time a description of your drawing. 

10. What is the construction of the indicator ? How 
may it be used for the purpose of ascertaining the actual 
working power of a steam-engine. Draw an indicator 
diagram of the character which you would expect to take 
from a condensing steam-engine. 



4. State the two theories of electricity, and give any 
reasons you may have for preferring either. 

5. State the difference between an electrometer and an 
electroscope, and explain the construction of the condens- 
ing electroscope. 

6. What are the conditions of efficiency in a lightning- 
conductor ? 

7. Give some experimental proof of the identity of the 
electricities of the machine and the battery. 

8. What is an astatic needle? How is it employed 
in a galvanometer, and what position ought it to assume ? 

9. State the phenomena of electro-magnetic rotation, 
and explain them by the action of some well known 
apparatus. 

10. Explain the construction of Wheatstone's mag- 
neto-electric telegraph. 

11. Give the construction of an induction coil machine, 
and state the means of intensifying its action. 

12. Can electricity be advantageously employed as a 
motive power ? State the reasons for your answer. 

13. Explain the ordinary electrical state of living nerve 
and -muscle. 

14. Explain and illustrate the transmission of heat by 
conduction and by convection. 

15. Describe the best means of observing very low, 
medium, and very high temperatures. 

16. Define specific and latent heat, and state their nume- 
rical amounts, respectively, in some well-known bodies. 

17. State some points of analogy between radiant heat 
and light, and the theory of heat that you would deduce 
from them. 

18. How is the boiling point of liquids affected by 
pressure ? State the boiliDg point of water at some pres- 
sures greater than that of the atmosphere. 

19. Explain the " Spheroidal state " of water, and its 
importance in relation to engine boilers. 

20. Explain the construction and use of either Mason's, 
Daniell's, or Regnault's hygrometer. 



MAGNETISM, ELECTRICITY, AND HEAT. 

THREE HOURS ALLOWED. 

1. Explain what you consider the best construction of a 
mariner's compass ? By what arrangement of the needles 
may some errors of deviation be obviated ? 

2. Explain the influence of some periodic natural phe- 
nomena on the earth's magnetism ? 

3. Define the relations of magnetic and diamagnetic 
force. 



ASTRONOMY. 

THREE HOURS ALLOWED. 

1 . Explain aberration of light, and show its effect on 
the position of a star. 

2. Explain the nutation of the earth's axis, and show 
its effect on the position of a star. 

3. Explain the method of drawing a meridian line at 
any place. 

4. Mention what is known of the nature and motions 
of double stars. 

5. Define parallax, state where it is greatest and how it 
varies. 

6. If the s un's h orizontal parallax be 8"*9, what is his 
distance from the earth. 

7. If the moon's distance from the earth be 60*2 times 
the earth's radius, what is the horizontal parallax of the 



8. The length of a degree on the earth's surface has 
been measured both north .and south of the equator, and 
its mean length is about 69*45 miles, what is the Equa- 
toreal radius of the earth ? 

9. The length of a degree on the earth's surface has 
been measured far from the equator and it is found that 
the length of a degree increases from the equator to the 
pole such that the ellipticity of the earth is ^ nearly, 
what is the polar diameter of the earth. 

10. If the zenith distance north of Polaris be observed 
at its inferior transit over the meridian be 39° 55' 51"«81, 
and of its superior be 37° 5' 19"-96 ; and the corrections 
tor refraction be 48"- 46 and 44"* 62 respectively, what is 
the star's north polar distance, and what is the latitude of 
the place of observation ? 

11. Define a tropical year? 

12. Define a sidereal year, and determine its length, 
assuming the length of a tropical year as 365d. 5h. 48m. 
51-6s. 



JOURNAL OP THE SOCIETY OF ARTS, August 5, 1864. 



613 



13. Define an anomalistic year and calculate its length. 

14. Define a sidereal day, a solar day, a mean solar day, 
and the equation of time. 

15. The interval of time from the sun leaving Aries 
till he returns to it again is 365d. 5h. 48m. 51s., what is 
the sun's mean motion in longtitude or right ascension in 
one solar day, and what is the relation between a sidereal 
day and a mean solar day. 

16. Deduce formulae to convert sidereal into mean solar 
time, and conversely. 

(17.) On February 25, 1860, the observed transit of 
Castor was 7h. 25m. 22*23s., and the calculated place of 
the star on this day was 7h. 25m. 42*56s. 

The level error was 5"-9, west end of axis too 
high. 

Azimuthal error was 6"*7, east pivot too far north. 
Collimation error was 0''-9, correction to stars above 
the pole subtractive. 
The sin. of zenith distance was -333 
The cos. of zenith distance was *943 
The sin. of north polar distance was *846 
What was the error of the clock ? 
The numerical corrections to the time of observed transit, 
in seconds of time, are — 

Error of Collimation X 15 sin NPD 

and additive when stars above the pole require an addi- 
tive correction. 

„ „ , , cos. zenith distance 

Error of level X 15 ain . N P p 

and additive when the western end of the axis is too high, 
sin. zenith distance 
Ector of azimuth X 15 sin . M P u 

and additive when the eastern pivot is too far north. 

18. The transit of the centre of Jupiter on the same 
day corrected for error of level, collimation and azimuth 
was 7h. 7m. 16*82s, using the error of the clock as found 
from Castor, with a losing daily rate of 0-3s, what was 
the error of the tables ? 

The places of Jupiter as given in the Nautical 
Almanack are — 

February 24 at noon 7h. 7m. 5326s. 
" 25 " 7h. 7m. 40-65s. 
26 « 7h. 7m. 28-87s. 
The sidereal time at mean noon on February 25 was 
22h. 18m. 

19. The zenith distance of the sun's north limb was 
69° 44' 20" -47. 

The zenith distance ot the sun's south limb was 
70° 16' 41"-64. 

The correction for refraction for north limb was 
2' 38"-59, and for parallax was 8"-12. 

The correction for refraction for south limb was 
2' 43"-22, and for parallax was 8"-15. 

The latitude of the place of observation is 51° 28' 
38"-20. 

What was the diameter of the sun, and what was 
the error of the tables, the calculated place of the sun 
being, south declination 18° 34' 21"- 10 ? 

20. On November 7, 1861, the calculated place of the 
moon when she passed the meridian of Greenwich was 
109° 46' 8"-7. 

The observed zenith distance of her south limb 
was 72° 23' 12"-87. 
The correction for refraction was 2' 59" -84. 
parallax was 55' 20"-44. 
The semi-diameter of the moon was 15' 54'' -12. 
What was the error of the calculated place ? 
( To be continued.) 



$iw $tts. 



Siqnor Bruooiani, of Kussell-street, Covent-garden, 
has just completed a large and handsome gallery, which 



he has filled with casts from all the finest remains of 
antique sculpture. They are the same as those supplied 
by him to the Science and Art Department, the British 
Museum, and the Royal Academy. The contents of this 
gallery consist of statues, statuettes, machine reductions, 
and copies from the antique, casts from original modern 
statues and busts, figures for gas lights, statues and por- 
traits of eminent men of all professions; animals, 
animals' heads, and groups of animals, both antique and 
modern, relievi, basso and alto, vases, tazzi, and torsi ; 
candelabra and tripods ; casts from all the principal parts 
of the human figure, anatomical studies, fruit, foliage, and 
flowers in relief, from nature, for the use of artists and 
students ; and ornaments of all kinds for both external 
and internal decorative purposes. 

Winchester City Cross. — A committee has been 
formed for the restoration of this cros3, a work of the 
15th century, which has for years been in a state of great 
dilapidation and decay, three out of the four statues with 
which it was originally decorated having been destroyed. 
Mr. G. G. Scott has furnished plans for the restoration of 
the cross, and has undertaken to superintend the execution 
of them. He proposes to retain as much of the original 
structure as may be found practicable, and to restore the 
whole, as nearly as possible, to what he believes to have 
been its original state. The sum of £600 will be required 
to complete the work. 

Arch<eological Institute.— The Warwick meeting ot 
the Archoeological Institute has been particularly pleasant 
and instructive. Excursions were made to Kenil worth, 
Coventry, Lichfield, and Stratford-on-Avon, where papers 
were read and explanations given of the objects interesting 
to the antiquary. In Warwick, the castle first claimed 
the attention of the visitors; a historic sketch of the 
building was given by the Rev. C. H. Hartshorne. The 
company included the President, Lord Leigh, the Bishop 
of Oxford, the Dean of Chichester, and Mr. Beresford 
Hope. On entering the suite of rooms which the Karl of 
Warwick had thrown open, Mr. Scharf gave explanations 
of the pictures and portraits. The after-part of the day 
was devoted to an excursion to Stoneleigh Abbey and a 
visit to the ruins of Kenilworth. The following morning 
opened with an excursion to Coventry; the Mayor received 
the excursionists at St. Mary's Hali, which had been 
richly stored as a museum in honour of the visit. Ihe 
city boasts of ancient archives and of certain pieces of 
municipal plate of rare historic interest. Leaving the 
hall, the party made a peregrination through the sin- 
gularly picturesque streets of this commercial city of the 
middle ages. The remains of the cathedral, now con- 
sisting of little more than a substructure, were visited. 
There is little doubt that it formerly possessed three 
spires, and these added to the three church spires for which 
the city is still conspicuous, must have added much to 
the beauty of the city. Mr. Beresford Hope, in the choir 
of St. Michael, made some interesting remarks on the 
leading architectural features of that imposing church ; 
"spacious it was, and commanding, as fitted for a large and 
wealthy commercial community, and the choir was pro- 
bably formerly used for the performance of the Coventry 
" mysteries." On Friday there was an excursion to Lich- 
field, where Professor Willis delivered a discourse upon the 
architectural history of the cathedral, and Mr. Winston 
read a paper upon the windows in the Lady Chapel. 
Professor Willis gave to his hearers an exhaustive analysis 
of the venerable cathedral, tracing the successive stages of 
its history. The paper read by Mr. Winston on the win- 
dows of the Lady Chapel, was remarkable for its advo- 
cacy of the style of the Kenaissance and its defence of the 
Munich school of painted glass, as opposed to the more 
archaic, severe, and architectonic manner of anterior cen- 
turies. During the excursion to Stratford the house and 
grounds of Charlecote were visited. The house was 
kindly thrown open by its present owner, H. L. Lucy, Lsq. 
On reaching Stratford, the mayor, the rector, and Mr 
Halliwell conducted the party from the birth-place to the 



614 



JOURNAL OP THE SOCIETY OP ARTS, August 5, 1864. 



resting-place of Shakspeare. The Institute closed its pro- 
ceedings on Tuesday, by a general meeting in the court- 
house of Warwick. 

Schools of Art. — The Committee of Council on 
Education have decided that the present minutes relating 
to art instruction shall continue in operation up to the 31st 
March, 1865, as respects existing schools of art ; and 
inquiry will be made as to the feasibility of establishing 
night classes for instruction in drawing to artisans in con- 
nection with Mechanics' and other Institutions and Schools 
not organised as distinct schools of art. During the recess 
the recommendations of the Select Committee of the 
House of Commons on Schools of Art will be taken into 
consideration. 

Fine Arts in France. — The number of provincial 
exhibitions is increasing every year, exhibiting a growing 
taste for the arts amongst the provincial populations ; the ex- 
hibitions of Angers, Melun,and Nancy were recently closed; 
that of Bayonne opened on the 10th July, and is announced 
to close on the 30th September ; the Boulogne Exhibition 
opened on the 1st of July, and is to close at the end of the 
present month ; that of Falaise commenced on the 14th July, 
to close on the 25th inst. ; and the following are announced : 
— Marseilles, to open the 1st of September; and Rouen on 
the 1st of October. The Exhibition of Boulogne sur-Mer 
contains 425 works and include* the productions of some 
of the most popular painters in France. The improve- 
ments which have occurred at the Louvre have greatly 
increased the number of visitors to that famous gallery ; 
on Sundays the rooms are crammed ; and on Tuesdays 
and Thursdays the average is between 1 ,500 and 2,000. 
The antiquities of the Campana collection are to be given 
to the public on the 15th inst., the day of the Imperial 
files. The French school is now exhibited to great 
advantage, and its beauties and defects may be seen with 
a facility that it has never before enjoyed. The galleries 
of the Luxembourg attract at the present moment about 
500 visitors on Sundays, from 200 to 300 on Thursdays, 
and on ordinary days from 100 to 150. The number of 
students and copyists in the various galleries increases 
daily ; from 40 to 50 artists may be seen almost daily at 
work in the Salle des Dessins de la Bibhotheque alone. 

Decorations of St. Paul's. — The ceremony of un- 
covering the first of the mosiac paintings in St. Paul's 
Cathedral, forming part of the intended embellishments 
of the interior, took place lately in the presence of the 
Committee for raising funds for this purpose. The 
mosaic was designed by Mr. Alfred Stevens, and carefully 
executed by M. Salviati, of Venice. It is placed in one 
of the eight spandrels formed by the great arches of the 
dome, under the whispering-gallery, and occupies a space 
of nearly 300 superficial feet. The design is intended to 
represent the Prophet Isaiah in a vision, with two 
attendant angels, and is one of a series of groups with 
which it is proposed to adorn the eight spandrels in that 
part of the edifice illustrative of the prophets. It repre- 
sents the prophet seated, and turning half round towards 
the right, as if scanning some mystery which is indicated 
by a tablet held by an angel, while on the left another 
angel exhibits a separate revelation. It is executed on a 
gold ground, which greatly enhances its effect, and has 
occupied M. Salviati two months, the cost being about 
£700. 



Ptmufactos, 



Bleaching op Sponges. — A French savant, M, Artus, 
has been experimenting on the bleaching of sponges. 
Some good sponges were well washed by M. Artus in 
river water, and whilst still wet were placed in a bath 
of six parts water and one part commercial hydrochloric 
acid, and were allowed to remain until all the carbonic 
acid gas was discharged. They were then washed again, 
and afterwards strung together and immersed in hydro- 
chloric acid, diluted with six per cent, of hyposulphite of 



soda dissolved in water. The vessel was then closed, 
and left for forty-eight hours, when the snonges were 
taken out, washed and dried. M. Artus tried another 
experiment, in which the quantity of hyposulphite of soda 
was doubled. In a third experiment the sponges were, on 
removal from the bath, treated with hydrochloric acid, 
subsequently well washed, and then exposed to sul- 
phurous acid gas. The sponges, however, by each of 
these processes were not thoroughly bleached, and a 
fourth method was tried. The sponges were well washed 
in hot diluted soda lye, then placed in a bath of weak 
hydrochloric acid and hyposulphite of soda, using only 
half the quantity of hyposulphite that was used in the first 
experiment, and a very satisfactory result was thus 
obtained. 

Cosmetic PoisoNs.—In France, as in all civilised 
countries, the use of cosmetics is very great, and the 
mischief caused thereby enormous. Frequent cases of 
serious illness, permanent injury, and sometimes of death, 
caused by these compounds, which are quaintly described 
in the Dictionnaire Uhiverselles de Matiire Medicate as 
" destined to give to the face and body a beauty 
which they do not possess," are not sufficient to deter 
persons from recurring to all kinds of aids to beauty in the 
shape of powders, creams, washes, and dyes. MM. 
Chevalier and Trebuchet, both members of the sanitary 
council of Paris, have upon more than one occasion pro- 
tested against the negligence of the administration which 
permits matters so injurious to the health as the great 
mass of cosmetics to be offered for sale, and to be puffed 
into notoriety by false statements and deceptive recom- 
mendations. Sometimes the law visits with its penalties 
the makers and salesmen of these poisons. In 1860, two 
perfumers sold pearl white to a number of actresses, who 
soon exhibited symptoms of having been poisoned; they 
fell into a condition of extraordinary languor, they lost 
their memory; their minds became affected, and their 
hands and arms became puffed and swollen. One of them 
was very nearly losing her life. The matter was carried 
before the tribunal of correctional police ; the preparations 
were analysed and found to contain considerable 
quantities of carbonate of lead, and the two perfumers 
were each imprisoned for three months and fined £20. 
There have been several other remarkable cases of the 
like kind, though none, perhaps, so striking as the above ; 
and the scientific men of France have made many praise- 
worthy efforts to enlighten the public mind on the sub- 
ject. Amongst others M. Re veil, a distinguished chemist, 
has published a work on cosmetics, in which the tricks of 
the perfumer are laid bare in a determined manner. The 
use of cosmetics is unusually large in Paris, and the busi- 
ness of the perfumer and the quack — not of necessity, but 
too often united in one — is earned out on a large scale, 
but the warnings which have been published in Paris are 
equally applicable to London. It is right that English 
as well as French ladies should know that of all the 
ordinary cosmetics violet powder (Poudre de riz) is one of 
the most innocent, and that even the substances with 
which it is sometimes, if not often, adulterated, namely, 
plaster of Paris and talc, are not injurious to the general 
health, whatever may be their effect upon wriukling the 
skin and rendering it coarse in appearance. The powders 
and washes sold for the removal of superfluous hair are de- 
clared to be highly dangerous, containing, as they do, mer- 
cury, arsenic, oxide of lead, quicklime, and caustic soda, all 
deleterious. An actress of the Vaudeville Theatre suffered 
severely from the use of one of these powders, it having 
produced deep and painful wounds; it was found on 
analysis to contain quicklime and caustic soda. One 
of the depilatory fluids best known is the rusma, which 
is used by the Orientals ; this is simply quicklime and 
sulphite of arsenic boiled in an alkaline solution. To give 
an idea of the character of this compound, and of the 
effect it must have upon the human skin, it may be 
mentioned that the mode of testing the strength of the 
rusma is to dip a quill into it, and if the feathers do not 



JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS, August 5, 1864. 



G15 



fall Off the stem the rusma is cot fit for use as a cosmetic ! 
In the time of Louis XIV. and XV. the barbers used to 
have two or three baths to let to their customers ; there 
were no large bathing establishments in Paris, on the 
Seine or elsewhere, till about 1761, and it was the custom 
to rub the bather over with depilatory paste, the composi- 
tion of which was fixed, by law, as follows :— 4 ounces of 
quicklime, 1 J oz. of orpiment, and 2 pounds of lye made 
from bean stalks. The lait antiphttique, which is so 
itrongly recommended for removing freckles, is simply a 
preparation of corrosive sublimate, one of the most virulent 

fofcons known. Amongst the most dangerous cosmetics 
hbwn in Paris are the common white and red pastes used 
in the theatres ; the first is composed with white lead, 
the second with sulphite of mercury. The liquids sold by 
perfumers for dyeing the hair consist of red lead, chalk, 
and slacked lime. The preparations sold for the same 
purpose under the high-sounding names of Eau de Perse, 
Eau d ? Egypte, Eau de Chypre, Eau d'Ebene, are generally 
only concentrated solutions of nitrate of silver. M. Tre- 
buchet says: — " The sale of cosmetics is a matter of 
extreme danger, and an efficacious remedy is impera- 
tively called for ; at no epoch was the public credulity 
more abused. The evil is extensive, but fortunately 
not incurable, and the authorities are sufficiently armed 
without the passing of any new laws. The moment 
that a cosmetic is announced as having medicinal or pro- 
phylactic qualities ; the moment it appears to include a 
secret remedy, it falls under the law expressly provided 
for such cases. The means of repression exist ; it only re- 
mains to study how to apply them and to have the courage 
to put down an abuse when it appears." Some years since 
the sanitary council of the Seine gave its attention to the 
use of dangerous matters by the confectioners for tinting 
their sweatmeats, and now, in consequence of the periodic 
visits of the members of the council, the confectionary of 
Paris is almost, if not quite, purified from these deleterious 
substances. Why, it is asked, is not the same rule applied 
to perfumery ? It is a matter decidedly affecting the 
health of the public in a high degree, and well deserves 
the trouble that it would entail upon the authorities. It 
}s almost needless to add that all that is here recorded, 
and all that is proposed to be done in Paris, applies, in one 
sense in a greater, though in another in a less degree, to 
London ; the use of cosmetics cannot be put down by the 
law, but the abuses of quacks may at any rate be exposed, 
and the public put upon its guard. 

Cotton. — The cultivation of cotton is attracting much 
attention in the state of Yucatan. In 1862, the amount 
exported was only 240,0001b. The prices obtained in the 
Havannah and elsewhere, however, were so renumerative 
that several landed proprietors determined to turn their 
attention to the subject, and the consequence was that in 
the following year 1, 200,0001b, were exported, and this 
year it is expected that the produce will nearly reach 
3,000,000ft). 

Cloth-Shearing Machine. — M. Alcan, member of the 
"Mechanical Committee of the Societe* d'Encouragement of 
Paris, has published, in the bulletin of the Society, an ac- 
count of a discovery of a MS. by Leonardo da Vinci, in 
which he describes and illustrates, by sketches, an inven- 
tion of a machine for shearing cloth. It is well known 
that the great painter of the renaissance was not a painter 
merely ; his name has been associated with a variety of 
scientific researches and mechanical appliances, and an 
account of them is given by Venturi, in " VEssai sur les 
Ouvrages Physico-Matkematiques de Leonard de Vinci" 
and by the author of a work entitled, «« L'Histoire des 
Sciences Mathematiques en Italie depuis la Renaissance des 
lettres jusqu'a la fin du XVII, siecle. M. Alcan was 
struck by the following passages from the latter work, 
having reference to Da Vinci's labours : — " We shall 
notice many machines for making cylinders, files, saws, 
shearing cloth, rabettfng, reeling ; a mechanical press, 
a hammer for goldbeaters, a machine for digging ditches, 
another for tilling the ground by means of water power, 



boring apparatus, a paddle for moving boats, and an in- 
finity of other machines too numerous to mention. He 
also had constructed a number of ingenious appa- 
ratus for domestic purposes, and had conceived the 
idea of a smoke-jack for turning the spit." This 
passage seems to have excited M. Alcan's cariosity, and 
after much inquiry he learnt that these inventions were 
described in MSS.,\some of which, originally deposited in 
the library at Milan, had been taken from thence after 
the Egyptian campaign by the First Consul, and deposited 
in the private library of the Institute of France. There 
he has found three MSS., which contain, in addition to 
written descriptions, sketches of the inventions drawn in 
pen and ink by Da Vinci himself. M. Alcan was specially 
struck with the sketches of the cloth-shearing machine, 
and has had fac-similes of them printed and inserted in 
the Society's Bulletin. There are seven sketches in all, 
and they exhibit a machine with cutting blades wrapped 
round a cylinder after the fashion of a screw. The 
cylinder lies transversely on the cloth, and has a double 
motiorl, one of rotation on its axis, the other of transla- 
tion along the length of the cloth, which is stretched 
beneath it. The machine bears a remarkable analogy, 
indeed is almost identical with, the first automatic shear 
ing machines, known as transverse machines, working 
over the cloth which remained fixed. Such machines 
were known in England under the name of Lewis'*, and 
in France under that of Collier's, who first imported them 
into that country. Previous to the commencement of the 
present century j all the woollen cloths were sheared or 
cropped by hand, and machinery for the purpose was not 
introduced into the manufacture till about the year 1802. 



€ammmt 

*. 

Fisheries op France. — The admirable exertions which 
have been used in France for the artificial propagation and 
preservation of fish, are about to be seconded by the pro- 
mulgaiion of a new law relating to fisheries. One of the 
provisions of this draft law is in accordance with the 
practice in England, and with the representations which 
have been made on the subject by the English to the French 
government, and prohibits the taking and selling of fish 
during the spawning season. In the original draft adopted 
by the commission appointed to draw up the bill, this 
clause referred only to salmon and trout, but the Minister 
of Agriculture and Commerce consulted M. Coste, In- 
spector-general of river fisheries, to whose skill and 
energy is due the great fish preserve at Concarneau, de- 
scribed in the Society's Journal of the 29th July, who of 
course advocated the application of the interdiction to all 
kinds of fish, the preservation of which is a matter .of 
public importance, and the bill has been altered accord- 
ingly. To sa ve is always more easy than to create, and the 
value of this decision is of infinite importance. 

Quinquina.— The French are about to undertake the 
cultivation of the Quinquina in the oasis of Ghauna, in 
Algeria. 

Cotton. —Messrs. Smith, Edwards, and Co., in their 
circular for August, say :— " The great basis of strength 
to our market consists in the prospective scarcity of supply, 
for as the season progresses it becomes more apparent 
that the present rate of consumption, and an export de- 
mand slightly in excess of last year, cannot be maintained 
without leading to a considerable reduction in stock be- 
fore the end of the year. The shipments from Bombay 
in the 'fortnight ending the 8th July, were only 15,000, 
and for several months they will be small, owing to the 
prevalence of the monsoon— probably not larger than 
last year, when they averaged 25,000 bales fortnightly— 
and though they will likely be heavy during the last 
three months of the year, these shipments will not come 
into this year's supply. It does not seem probable that 
we shall receive a large increase of long-staples over tiie 



616 JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS, August 5, 1864. 



same period last year, as there is little Brazil cotton 
afloat, and the Egyptian crop is now almost exhausted. 
We shall have pretty liberal arrivals of new crop Medi- 
terranean cotton in November and December, but the 
experience of past years teaches us that we cannot expect 
any weight of this cotton before Januaiy. The position 
of Manchester is still extremely healthy, no accumula- 
tion of stock is taking place, and a good demand for the 
home trade and export steadily takes off the present pro- 
duction. The accounts from the East, though less en- 
couraging than the latest dates, show that India is respond- 
ing to the movement here, and better news is confidently 
expected. The position of the trade, looked upon in the 
light of supply and demand, is strong, and would seem to 
warrant a higher range of prices during the autumn ; but 
this may be more than counterbalanced by the course of 
American affairs." 

The Timber Trade between France and Norway has 
progressed of late. In 1863 the quantity of sawn timber, 
for building purposes, imported direct into France from 
Norway, was 123,404 steres (thestere is rather more than 
85 cubic feet) of one sort, and 19,162,314 metres (the 
metre is rather more than 3 feet 3J inches) of another 
sort ; whereas in 1862 the quantities respectively were 
only 112,645 steres and 15,842,544 metres. In the first 
five months of the present year the import of the former 
sort was 60,319 steres to 52,685 in the same period of last 
year ; and of the other sort 6,955,563 metres to 2,327,162. 
In other descriptions of timber there is likewise progress. 
The port of Dieppe has obtained a fair share in the trade, 
and is making great efforts to increase it. 

Imports from France. — It appears from a parlia- 
mentary return that the value of the linen manufactures, 
viz. , cambrics and French lawns, damask and damask diaper, 
sails and sailcloth, &c, imported into the United King- 
dom in the year ended May 31, 1863, was £55,934. In 
the year ended the 31st of May this year the total value 
of the imports was £211,949. The great increase is in 
linen yarn. 



New Zealand Revenue.-— The Customs returns of 
the value of imports and exports for the quarter ending 
March 31, shows that the imports amounted to £870,418, 
of which £373,808 was from Great Britain and £353,813 
from Victoria. The value of exports for the same period 
was, the produce of New Zealand, £688,009 Is. 7d. ; 
other countries, £13,242 ; total, £701,251 Is. 7d. 

Agricultural Machinery in New Zealand. — There 
are now at the Taieri and Tokomairiro alone some six or 
seven steam thrashing machines, besides those which are 
worked by horses. Some of the former are portable, and 
may be hired by the day, at so much per bushel of grain. 
The demand this season is larger than usual for chaff- 
cutters, winnowing machines, and corn-crushers. 

Peak Downs Copper Mine.— A Sydney paper says 
that the last accounts from this mine report that smelting 
operations had commenced, and that the ore turned out to 
be a very rich metal. Three of the shafts that have been 
opened disclose the existence of several thousand tons of 
ore of good per centage, all of which can be raised at a 
trifling cost. 

The Population op Tasmania, on the 3 1st of 
December, 1863, was estimated at 91,519. The esti- 
mated population on 31st December, 1862, was 49,441 
males, 41,682 females, less 395 children, whose sexes 
have not been distinguished. Total population on that 
date 90,728 ; increase during the year 1863, by arrivals, 
3,621, and by births, 2,998; total increase, 6,619; 
decrease by departures, 4,4 L0; by deaths, 1,410; total 
decrease, 5,828. These figures show an actual increase 
in the population of 794 souls. 



fanltnatt. 



The Gold of New Zealand. — A return ©f the quan- 
tity and value of gold exported from New Zealand from 
1st April, 1857, to 31st December, 1863, has been issued. 
Otago has exported during the quarter ending 31st Dec, 
1863, 131,601 ozs. of the precious metal, of the declared 
value of £509,953, exclusive of the following quantities 
from lnvercargill and the Bluff, which were the produce 
of Otago, viz., 3526 ozs. and 458 ozs. respectively, of the 
value together of £15,438. The total quantity exported 
from Otago now amounts to 1,201,536 ozs., the money 
value being set down at £4,665,565. From the same 
return it appears that Nelson (of course exclusive of the 
products of the late discoveries) has exported a total 
quantity of 61,828 ozs., valued at £239,583 ; and Auckland 
has exported 6073 ozs., of the value of £19,329. 

Gold Dust. — The quantity of gold dust imported into 
the Sydney Branch of the Royal Mint, from the 1st Jan. 
to the 28th March, for the purpose of coinage, has been 
115,427 ozs., and the amount of gold issued has been 
324,000 sovereigns. For the same period of the year 
1863, the receipts of gold dust amounted to 119,050 
ounces, and the coin issued to 358,000 sovereigns. The 
difference in the gold dust received for coinage, as com- 
pared with last year, is only 3623 ounces, and in the coin 
issued 34,000 sovereigns ; but this is owing to the fact 
that two or three parcels of gold dust have been recently 
received from Victoria, and not to any improvement in 
the yield of the gold fields, which still show a consider- 
able falling off on the receipts of last year. 

Tobacco in New South Wales.— -The tobacco plant- 
ings in this colony are said to have fully realised the ex- 
pectations of several owners. 



©Mtaatj. 



John Morton, of Nailsworth, Gloucestershire, one of 
the original members of the Royal Agricultural Society of 
England, and agent for many years over the estates of 
successive Earls of Ducie, died on the 26th July, aged 
eighty- thrp.e. A quarter of a century ago he established, on 
Lord Ducie's property, the Whitfield Example farm, which 
at one time received large numbers of visitors, inquiring 
into the results of the land drainage, and of the manage- 
ment which he there superintended and directed. He 
also first attempted to illustrate the connection existing 
in this country between agriculture and geology. In 
early manhood — already, however, in the occupation of a 
small farm in his native county, Fife— Mr. Morton 
repeatedly walked over most of the counties of Eng- 
land. His notes on the geology and farm practice 
of the districts thus examined were afterwards col- 
lected and published in his book 4< On Soils," and 
this, as the work of an original observer, was cor- 
diallv introduced to the agricultural public by the late 
Dr. Buckland and the late Philip Pusey, M.P., and went 
through several editions during 1840-1848. He also 
wrote a controversial pamphlet along with his friend the 
late Joshua Trimmer, F.G.S., advocating the repeal of 
the corn laws from the agricultural point of view, on the 
ground that the farmer is or ought to be one of the largest 
consumers of grain in the right prosecution of his business — 
a truth which, though not generally admitted at the time, 
has since then been more and more realised. Early in the 
century Mr. Morton left Fifeshire, and took a farm near 
Dulverton, in Somerset; and, through the introduction 
of his landlord, the late Earl of Carnarvon, he was ulti- 
mately placed in charge of Lord Ducie's Gloucestershire 
estates. He retired at the age of seventy, and had latterly 
resided at Morningside Cottage, Nailsworth. He was the 
father of Mr. John Chalmers Morton, the well-known 
writer on agricultural subjects, and now Examiner in 
Agriculture to the Society of Arts. 



JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF- ARTS, August 5, 1864. 



617 



fttbfetioRS Issttft. 



The Story op the Guns, by Sir Emerson Tennant 
(Longman), —The author divides his book into three 
distinct parts:— The Rifled Musket — The Rifled 
Ordnance — and the Iron Navy. In the first of these he 
commences by describing the inefficiency of the regulation 
musket formerly in use, and questions whether, " with- 
out the invention of the bayonet, the musket of the last 
century would have permanently succeeded the cross-bow 
of the middle ages." He continues by describing the 
manner in which the musket was tested, and the ridi- 
culous results obtained, and states that, not long ago, a 
well-trained marksman, using a regulation musket, could 
not put more than one bullet out of twenty into a target 
18 feet square, the range being 300 yards. He repudiates 
the obstinacy of the Duke of Wellington in not adopting 
a new form of musket, and gives reasons for his reluctance 
to introduce a new arm, until the introduction of the 
Minie* rifle was sanctioned in 1851. Starting from this, 
as the commencement of gradual improvement, he enters 
into a description of the carabine a tige, Minie, and En- 
field bullets. Referring to the Enfield rifle of 1853, he 
says : — " During the ten yeara that have elapsed since its 
adoption, although other rifles made in England have 
greatly exceeded it in almost every essential quality, 
it admits of no doubt that the Enfield rifle is still 
superior to any arm yet adopted in other countries, 
and its efficiency was well attested at the Alma and at 
Inkermann, where, in the words of the Times* corre- 
spondent, * it smote the enemy like a destroying angel.' " 
Mr. Whitworth is then brought into notice, and the 
experiments which led to the production of his well 
known rifle are referred to. In 1857 Mr. Whitworth 
reported to the Secretary of State for War his ability 
to communicate such velocity, by means of polygonal 
rifling with a quick turn, as effectually to control 
the tendency to "turn over" in projectiles of any 
length. The progress is now described as rapid. Mr. 
Whitworth adopted a ball of a cylindro-conoidal or 
hexagonal shape, and after a series of experiments the 
unknown secret was disclosed. " The unknown principle 
was found to consist in an improved system of rifling ; a 
turn in the spiral four times greater than the Enfield rifle ; 
a bore in diameter one-fifth less ; an elongated projectile 
capable of a mechanical fit ; and last, not least, a more 
refined process of manufacture." In consequence of the 
data derived from his rifled musket, Mr. Whitworth pre- 
dicted, in 1857, what he effected in 1860-62, and said 
that " Projectiles of wrought-iron steeled might be made 
for pieces of ordnance capable of penetrating the sides of 
floating batteries protected by iron armour." The first 
part concludes with a summary of the events which have 
since occurred in relation to the Enfield and Whitworth 
rifles, and with the objections opposed to the Whitworth 
rifle by the Ordnance Select Committee. In the second 
portion of this work, which treats of rifled ordnance, Sir 
E. Tennant starts by running through a list of men who 
first rifled cannon. He says— " The idea of rifling artillery 
was far from being new ; it had been tried in Germany 
more than a century before our time, and Robins, the 
accomplished inventor of the ' ballistic pendulum,' for 
determining the relative velocity of projectiles, experi- 
mented on rifled field-pieces in England so far back as 
1745." M. Ponchara (1819) at Paris, and Montigny (1836) 
at Brussels, had attempted similar experiments. Colonel 
Cavalli in Sardinia, and Baron Wahrendorf in Sweden, 
experimented on rifling combined with a system of breech - 
loading. Between 1840 and 1852 Colonel Treuille de 
Beaulieu endeavoured to revive the subject in France, but 
it was not tiil 1854 that Napoleon directed that experi- 
ments should be made on rifled cannon. Mr. Lancaster's 
gun is then brought before us, " the chief peculiarity of 
which consisted in its having an oval or slightly elliptical 
bore, with an increasing rapidity in the twist as the 



spiral approached the muzzle of the gun." This gun 
was used in the Crimea, but of eight sent three burst, 
chiefly on account of their being old cast-iron guns 
bored for the occasion on the Lancaster system. After 
Mr. Lancaster we are told that Mr. Bashley Britten 
and Mr. Lynall Thomas patented guns in 1855, and our 
attention is called to the guns of Mr. Jeffery, Mr. Hadden, 
and Commander Scott, who adopted numerous modes of 
rifling. In 1858 the committee on rifled cannon report 
on seven guns submitted to them, and placing those of 
Armstrong and W hitworth in a class by themselves, con- 
sider it unnecessary to conduct further experiments with 
the remaining five. In 1863, when the report was made, 
they awarded the first place for rifling to Mr. Bashley 
Britten, on the ground of the small strain on the gun 
caused by his projectile. " Captain Blakely's system has 
not as yet been favourably regarded by the British 
Government, and although after evidence of its perform- 
ance in 1855, two experimental guns were ordered by the 
War Office, some considerable time elapsed before they 
were tried at Shoeburyness." . . • • "The first 
gun, however, which Capt. Blakely produced m 1854, 
underwent a competitive trial with a cast iron gun and a 
brass one, both in use in the service, in the course of 
which the cast-iron one gave way, after 351 rounds, and 
the brass one after 479 ; whilst the Blakely stood 3,389 
shots." The Mersey Company manufactured the Horsfall 
gun, which is a grand piece of forging ; it weighs 24 tons 
and has a bore of 13 inches. Its performance is thus re- 
lated :— " On the 16th September, 1862, it was laid at a 
range of 200 yards, and with a charge of 755> of powder 
it sent a solid, cast-iron projectile, weighing 2801b, with a 
velocity of 1,100 feet in a second, through the central 
plate of a target formed of 18 inches of teak covered by 
4J inches of iron and lined with one inch of the same." 
At long ranges its accuracy was found to be inferior to its 
power. Sir William Armstrong and his gun are then 
made the subject of a chapter. After brief allusion to 
his crane and hydro-electric machines, Sir E. Tennant 
tells us that Armstrong was among the first to seethe 
necessity of imparting to field artillery the accuracy 
and range of the rifle. Encouraged by the Duke 
of Newcastle, Armstrong puts together his first 
gun in 1855. In November the same year the War 
Office Select Committee report favourably and recommend 
experiments on a larger scale to be made on Armstrong s 
gun. In 1858 an 18-pounder called forth the praises of 
Colonel Mitchell, of the Royal Artillery, and Lord Pan - 
mure, and a 12-pounder and two 18-pounders were ordered 
for experiments. At the close of 1858, the Armstrong 
gun for special service in the field was adopted. An 
accurate description of the gun, its manufacture, system 
of rifling and projectiles, conclude the chapter. I he 
chapter following is given up to Mr. Whitworth's gun. 
: Mr. Whitworth first rifles some field brass guns, and these 
j were reported on favourably ; his attention then became 
I turned to heavy guns, and he bored and rifled three brass 
j blocks for 24-pounder howitzers. The extraordinary 
i range of these, and the singular property of one of them 
j in maintaining its direct course under water, called forth 
I general attention. The 3rd division of this book gives us 
i a history of iron plates, and recounts the efforts of the 
Admiralty to impose impregnable obstacles to the new 
rifled ordnance. The effect on the different kinds of shot 
when fired at some of the targets is interesting ; but the 
account of the immense amount of controversy and 
diversity of opinions is more a matter of history than an 
aid in learning truths about guns or armour. 



Stores. 



The Prince Consort's birthday, on the 26th August, 
is to be kept as a holiday at the Royal Horticultural 
Gardens, South Kensington, which are to be open free to 
the public, at the express wish of the Queen. 



618 



JOUENAL OF THE SQOIETY OF ARTS, August 5, 1864. 



French Expedition to Mexico.— Messrs. Guillemin 
and Coignet, civil engineers, have been attached to the 
scientific staff sent by the French government to Mexico. 
This department undertakes the exploration of the metal- 
liferous districts and mineral substances of that country. 

Archeology.— An inexhaustible mine of antiquities 
has recently been discovered in the ruins of Lamb^se 
(Africa). A sepulchral vault, believed never to have been 
opened, has been discovered at about two hundred yards 
from the Prcetoiium. In it were found, amongst other 
things, two sarcophagi, bearing the names of a husband 
and wife, whose remains had been deposited therein, and 
each supported by two lions' heads sculptured. The lids 
\v*rfi intact, and the skeletons ]ay perfectly embedded in 
beds of extremely fine clay. There were vases and medals 
discovered, and the following quaint epitaph, translated by 
M. Barntfond, the director nf the Penitentiary at Lam- 
bese: — "In memory of the Veteran Caius Acmilius 
Victor, who during his lifetime built and dedicated this 
hypogeum for himself and his Wife, at the cost of 4,000 
sestertioe," about £24. A letter from Athens, addressed 
to the President of the Imperial Institute of Geologic of 
Paris, says that Dr. de Hahn, with thirty-six workmen, 
made an excavation at Baligdah, the supposed, or rat her one 
of the supposed sites of ancient Troy, and these laid bare 
the whole Cyclopean wall of the castle or citadel. No 
sculpture was found, says the letter in question, but some 
Greek coins, lamps, and remains of figures in terra-cotta. 
The walls of the supposed acropolis were covered with 
vegetable mould to the depth of about thirteen feet. It 
is said also that the remains of another ancient citadel 
have been discovered opposite Baligdah, near Scamandre, 
and that excavations are going on there at the present 
moment. 



Uatatfs. 



From Commissioners of Patents Journal, July 29th. 

Grants op Provisional Protection. 

Air and smoke valve— -1757— T. Boyle. 

Alarum for railway trains— 1767— J. Clark. 

Anchors— 1700— S. Sharp. 

Animal charcoal, apparatus for re-burning— 1787— S. Carey. 

Bolts, 6 c, machinery for making— 1746— J. Lewis. 

Brewing, improving water for— 1695— A. Blake. 

Carding and combing fibrous and textile materials— 1581 -A. 

Knowles and J. Barraclough. 
Carding engines, machinery for grinding card cylinders of— 1702— 

J. Middleton and J. Coulong. 
Carriages— 1721— W. E. Gedge. 

Carriages, 6c, propelling on^inclines— 1683— E. M. Marsden. 
Chaff-cutting machines- 1736 W. Barford, E. Pope, & S. Bradford 
Chain bands— 1488 — J. Lancelott. 
Coffins— 1744— V. Pean and A. F. Legros. 
Collecting apparatus (money or tickets)— 1748— E. Kerruish. 
Cop tubes, machinery for applying to spindles of mules— 1746— E 

Kirby. 
Cutlery bolsters— 1715— T. McGrah. 
Distilling apparatus - 1705— J. J. Moutic. 
Distilling liquids— 1732— J. Forbes. 

Earth or soil raising and conveying machinery— 1738— W. Wood 
Envelopes— 1771— D. B. Grove. J woga ' 

Envelopes, &c, securing— 1733 -J. Tomlinson and T. Brassineton. 
Explosive compounds— 1813— W. E. Newton. *»«m*ww. 

Feathers and plumes, artificial— 1690-P. S. de Pinna 
fibrous materials, machinery for spinning— 1763— T. Lancaster 

J. Lancaster, and J. Whitaker. «•««■»»■, 

Fibrous materials, machinery for treating— 1743— W. L Wise 
Fibrous substances, machinery for preparing— 1769-1 W K Wantlv 
Fire-arms— 1811— W. H. Wilks. westiy. 

Fire-arms, breech-loading— 1785— A. Wyley. 
Fire-bars, Ac, for cooking stoves-1640— J. Plimsaul 
I'uel, manufacture of— 1714— J. W. Horsfall 
Furnaces, supplying fuel to— 1701— A. Rogers 

Gardens, instrument for protecting from birds-1765-W C Thurear 
Gas, purification of-1759— A. A. Croll. Anurgar. 

Go-carriages ior teaching children to walk, &c— 1604-J Askew 
Grain and seed screening machinery— 1739— J Franoia AH * ew ' 
Grass rollers-1722-T. Amies, VV. Barford, and E. Pone 
Gunpowder-1694— L. H. G. Ehrhardt. P 

Gunsandordnar.ee— 1807— G. P. Harding 
Hair and flesh brushes-1726-B. Greenwood and I. Underwood 
Harmoniums, &c— 1750— J. Gilmour. unaer*ood. 



I Hats (ventilating)— 1572— J. Smith. 
Iron, manufacture of— 1795— F. Seebohm. 
Lamps— 747— J. T. Stroud. 

Lead, smelting and refining— 1686— J. H. Johnson. 
Letter balances— 1781— E. Bates, 

Liquids, apparatus for measuring flow of— 1718— A. V. Newton. 
Locomotive apparatus, land and marine— 763— J. Symes. 
Looms— 1712— J. Webster. 
Looms— 1 716— D. Stuttard. 
Looms— 1803— J. Maynes. 

Metallic screw nuts, machinery for manufacturing— 1740— W. Spence. 
Metal tubes, apparatus used when drawing— 1751— B. Smith. 
Motive power, apparatus for obtaining— 1741— T. T. Cougbin. 
Motive power by expansion and contraction of air— 180**-J;Laub«rean. 
Ornamentation by means of metallic surfaces— 1734— W. Clark. 
Paints, manufacture of— 1709— G. W. W. Webbe and F. Cant. 
Pianofortes— 1662— J. W. Jones. 
Pigments, manufacture of— 1729— L. Schad. 
Pipe wrench, self-adjusting— 1747— G. W. Pitcher. 
Piston-heads and packing— 1699— G. Haseltlne. 
Plastic materials, treatment of— 1723— F. L. H. Danchell. 
Portfolios— 1737— G. O. Wray. 
Presses— 1707— R. A. Brooman. 
Pressure guages— 1749— W. Weild. 
Railway brake— 1696— E. J. Dixon. 
Railway carriages— 1752— C. Claxton. 
Railway chairs - 1725 - Z. B. Smith and J. Richards. 
Railway signals- 1787— Z. B. Smith and W. L. Nelson. 
Railways, permanent way of— 17l7— J. E. Billups. 
Railways, permanent way of— 1793— C. Askew. 
Reaping and mowing machines— 1687— H. Cricbley. 
Reaping and mowing machines— 1697- A. C. Bamlett. 
Reaping machines— 1775— P. Winton. 
Rifle shooting, calculating distances in— 1779— T. Wickam. 
Sails, apparatus for reefing, furling, &c— 1689— W. Smallwood. 
Saws, apparatus for sharpening— 1724— J. Robinson. 
Sleeve links, &c, lever fastening for— 1742- W. Parsons. 
Steam- boats, machinery for propelling— 1728— W. Hadfield. 
Steam hammers— 1693— E. H. Carbutt and W. Cutts. 
Steering apparatus - 1684— H. E. Skinner. 
Stone-dressing machinery— 1797— P. G. B. Westmacott. 
Stretchers, Ac, apparatus for suspending from shoulders of bearers— 

1698— G. Russell. 
Tanning— 1691— J. Wilson. 
Thrashing machinery— 1713— M. Meisel. 
Ticket-holder— 1801— A. Dalgell. 
Umbrellas— 1777— J. Weeks. 
Under-shirts— 1783— W. Tillie. 
Veneering machinery— 1719— J. Stickland. 
Ventilator— 1710— T. J. J. Greer. 
Washing machines— 1692— C. H. Collctte. 
Washing machines— 1791— W. Whitley. 
Well-boring machinery— 17 53— P. Maitland. 
Wheels and axles— 1703— E. Leahy. 
Window blinds— 1735— A. Bosch. 

Wool-combing machinery, brushes for— 1674— E. Clifton. 
Woven fabrics, stretching and finishing— 1711— W. E. Gedge. 

Patents Sealed. 



269. W. N. Hutchinson. 
280. J. and C. Hawkins. 

282. A. B. Childs. 

283. E. Beanes. 

294. G. H. Holloway. 

302. M. A. F. Mennons. 

315. W. Taylor, W. Molineux, 

and H. Harrison. 
320. M. C. de Casteras Sinibaldj. 
328. N. McHaffle. 
337. R. J. Cunnack. 



341. B. Todd. 

342. A. M. Perkins. 
344. T. S. Cressey. 

351. M. C.de Casteras Sinibaldi. 

356. R. Smith. 

387. P. A. Le Comte de Fon- 

tainemoreau. 
655. T. Grace. 

679. J. Griffiths and J. Jaftrey. 
1346. P. Deeley. 



297. 
303. 
307, 
308, 
309. 
310. 
316. 
324. 
325. 
331. 
354, 
359. 



416, 



From Commissioners qf Patents Journal, August 2nd. 
Patents Sealed. 

454. E. A. Cotelle. 



T. Newton. 

J. C. Dickinson. 

R. Owen. 

R. A. Brooman. 

R. A. Brooman. 

Sir J. S. Lillie. 

A. McLaine. 

J. T. Oakley. 

R. H. Napier. 

E. Welch. 

W. Hawthorn. 

J. H. Johnson. 

P. A. L. de Fontainemo- 

reau. 
C. Field. 



461. H. Batt. 

533. E. H. Bentall. 

547. W. E. Newton. . 

552. A. Manbre. 

568. W. E. Newton. 

580. W.E.Newton. 

728. F. L. Roux. 

908. J. Ferrier. 

924. J. C. Rohrbeck. 
1084. J. C. Browne. 
1331. H. A. Bonneville. 
1426. F. H. Warlich. 
1481. G. H. Hooker. 
1536. H. A. Bonneville. 



Patents on which the Stamp Duty of £50 has been Faid. 

1879. J. H. Johnson. 1 1902. J. M. Hart. 

1885. J. Robertson. 
1899. T. S. Cressey. 



. C. C. J. Guflroy. 



Patents on which the Stamp Duty op £100 has been paid. 

2052. O. H. Smith. I 2113. W. C. Cambridge. 

2111. C. lies. *